Maximum tensile or compressive stress in a homogeneous flexure or torsion test specimen. For a specimen loaded as a simple beam at its midpoint, maximum fiber stress occurs at mid-span and may be calculated by the formula (for rectangular specimens):
where S is maximum fiber stress; P, load; L, span; b, width of the beam; and d, depth of the beam. For a circular cross section member loaded in torsion, maximum fiber stress may be calculated by the following formula:
where T is twisting moment; r, original outer radius and J, polar moment of inertia of original cross section.