How a Drop Tower can be used in Testing
When it comes to materials, impact tests are regulated by international standards including ISO 179, ISO 6603, ISO 8256, ASTM 3763, ISO 11343, and ASTM D7136, which define specimen characteristics as well as test configurations and parameters. These testing standards cover some of the emerging challenges and testing needs that are associated with high-performance polymers and composites.
Automotive OEMs often include in their testing requirements not only international standards but also their internal testing specifications.
As illustrated in the table below, impact testing often needs to be adapted to individual components.
|Puncture test||Involves a striker hitting a specimen with perpendicular force to determine the rupture characteristics of a material||ISO 6603-2 and ASTM D3763|
|Tensile impact test||Measures the force needed to break a specimen under a high speed tensile load and strain rate||ISO 8256|
wedge peel test
|Measures dynamic resistance to cleavage [N/mm] by pushing a wedge between adherents||ISO 11343|
|A two step process that assesses Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) to composites. An impact test causes BVID to a specimen, which then undergoes a compression test using an electromechanical machine to measure its residual strength.||ASTM D7136|
|Occupant safety test||
Strikers with different shapes are used to simulate human body impact
|Internal test standards|
|Pedestrian safety test||Bumper impacted at room temperature (safe testing environment) or with special thermostatic chamber.
Headlamps impacted at room temperature
|Internal test standards
|Vehicle active safety test||Test performed at different temperatures to guarantee the functionality of brakes and shock absorbers/suspensions under varying environmental conditions||Internal test standards
|Vehicle passive safety test||Test performed at different temperatures to investigate the performance of airbag’s cover||Internal test standards|
Instron's 9400 Series drop towers can be used to meet many different impact testing requirements and determine material properties at a multitude of working temperatures and conditions. This provides automotive OEM's with all the information they need in order to choose the right materials for the right parts of a vehicle, and develop the most reliable design “right the first time”.
As illustrated in the figure below, virtually every component of a modern vehicle normally has to undergo an impact test.
How to Solve the Challenges that come with Testing
The growing variety of materials and manufacturing methods used in automotive manufacturing is inevitably translating into more stringent testing requirements.
The need to carry out more frequent and thorough tests may lead to bottlenecks along the design and production line, which can ultimately hinder efficiency and productivity and extend the time to market. Generally, this is due to two main factors:
- Lack of repeatability and accuracy in testing, resulting in errors that can cause problems further down the line leading to downtime or product recalls.
- An inefficient testing process, leading to unnecessary downtime.
Ensuring a reliable, repeatable, and efficient testing process is therefore key.
- A frictionless linear guidance system to minimize loss of energy and improve data reproducibility.
- A high-resolution data acquisition chain in compliance with ISO 7500 to ensure the accuracy of the force measuring system.
- A user-friendly approach with step-by-step instructions to guide users through the entire testing process, ensuring tests remain repeatable, simple, and error-free.
Furthermore, Instron's 9450 drop tower can be equipped with falling mass from 1 kg and can perform impact tests according to internal and industry standards up to 24 m/s. These are crucial capabilities to determine resistance and deformation over a wide range of materials and applications.
Learn More about Instron's Automotive Solutions